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Names of the months
  Kanji Hiragana Romaji English
1 一月 いちがつ ichigatsu January
2 二月 にがつ nigatsu February
3 三月 さんがつ sangatsu March
4 四月 しがつ shigatsu April
5 五月 ごがつ gogatsu May
6 六月 ろくがつ rokugatsu June
7 七月 しちがつ shichigatsu July
8 八月 はちがつ hachigatsu August
9 九月 くがつ kugatsu September
10 十月 じゅうがつ juugatsu October
11 十一月 じゅういちがつ juuichigatsu November
12 十二月 じゅうにがつ juunigatsu December

Remarks:

1. 一、二、三、四、五、六、七、八、九、十 mean one to ten respectively.
2. 十一、十二 mean "eleven" and "twelve" respectively. Their literal meanings are "ten one" and "ten two". Both Japanese and Chinese contruct numbers this way.
3. means "month" here. It also has another meaning "moon".
4. These names of the months are used both in Japanese and Chinese. But of course, the pronunciations are different.
5. It is also acceptable to use numbers, e.g. 1月…12月.

Days of the week
  Kanji Hiragana Romaji English
1 日曜日 にちようび nichiyoubi Sunday
2 月曜日 げつようび getsuyoubi Monday
3 火曜日 かようび kayoubi Tuesday
4 水曜日 すいようび suiyoubi Wednesday
5 木曜日 もくようび mokuyoubi Thursday
6 金曜日 きんようび kinyoubi Friday
7 土曜日 どようび doyoubi Saturday

Remarks:

1. 日、月、火、水、木、金、土 mean "sun, moon, fire, water, wood, gold and earth" respectively.
2. They are NOT used in Chinese.

Days of the month
  Kanji Hiragana Romaji English
1 一日 ついたち tsuitachi 1st
2 二日 ふつか futsuka 2nd
3 三日 みっか mikka 3rd
4 四日 よっか yokka 4th
5 五日 いつか itsuka 5th
6 六日 むいか muika 6th
7 七日 なのか nanoka 7th
8 八日 ようか youka 8th
9 九日 ここのか kokonoka 9th
10 十日 とおか dooka 10th
11 十一日 じゅういちにち juuichinichi 11th
12 十二日 じゅうににち juuninichi 12th
13 十三日 じゅうさんにち juusannichi 13th
14 十四日 じゅうよんにち juuyonnichi 14th
15 十五日 じゅうごにち juugonichi 15th
16 十六日 じゅうろくにち juurokunichi 16th
17 十七日 じゅうしちにち juushichinichi 17th
18 十八日 じゅうはちにち juuhachinichi 18th
19 十九日 じゅうくにち juukunichi 19th
20 二十日 はつか hatsuka 20th
21 二十一日 にじゅういちにち nijuuichinichi 21st
22 二十二日 にじゅうににち nijuuninichi 22nd
23 二十三日 にじゅうさんにち nijuusannichi 23rd
24 二十四日 にじゅうよんにち nijuuyonnichi 24th
25 二十五日 にじゅうごにち nijuugonichi 25th
26 二十六日 にじゅうろくにち nijuurokunichi 26th
27 二十七日 にじゅうしちにち nijuushichinichi 27th
28 二十八日 にじゅうはちにち nijuuhachinichi 28th
29 二十九日 にじゅうくにち nijuukunichi 29th
30 三十日 さんじゅうにち sanjuunichi 30th
31 三十一日 さんじゅういちにち sanjuuichinichi 31st

Remarks:

1. It is okay to use numbers, e.g. 1日…31日.
2. Except for 1st to 10th and 20th, all are pronounced the Chinese way, which is also known as Onyomi. As a result, some of their pronunciations are crazily long. But don't worry, all you need to do is learn the Onyomi (Chinese-style pronunciation) of numbers 1 to 10. Long words like "nijuushichinichi" (27th) simply means "two-ten-seven-day". You are NOT required to remember 31 new words.

Today, Yesterday, Tomorrow, etc
  Kanji Hiragana Romaji English
1 一昨日 おととい ototoi The day before yesterday
2 昨日 きのう kinou yesterday
3 今日 きょう kyou today
4 明日 あす asu tomorrow
5 あした ashita
6 明後日 あさって asatte the day after tomorrow

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Seasons
  Kanji Hiragana Romaji English
1 季節 きせつ kisetsu season
2 はる haru spring
3 なつ natsu summer
4 あき aki autumn / fall
ふゆ fuyu winter