Kana only: それはあなたのえんぴつですか
Romaji: sore wa anata no enpitsu desu ka
Meaning: Is that your pencil?
Warning: あなた cannot be used when you are talking with your boss, teachers or parents. For details, please refer to this article.
In very formal letters, it can be written as 貴方 or 貴女(female only).
For your information, 鉛（なまり） means "lead" and 筆（ふで） means "writing brush". When combined together, both their pronunciations and meaning change, which is a very good example that you need to learn Kanji phrases, not just individual Kanji.
Meaning: a particle to show that the sentence is a question
The question mark "?" is also used in Japanese but not a must. This particle can change a narrative sentence into a question.
「あなたの鉛筆です」=(It) is your pencil.
「あなたの鉛筆ですか」=Is it your pencil?
Kana only: はい、これはわたしのえんぴつです
Romaji: hai, kore wa watashi no enpitsu desu
Meaning: Yes, this is my pencil.
Be careful that the Japanese people always say "はい" during a conversation to show that they are listening to you. It does not necessarily mean that they agree with you. For details, please read this article.
Kana only: ところでそれはあなたのほんですか
Romaji: tokorode sore wa anata no hon desuka
Meaning: By the way, is that your book?
Meaning: by the way
When put in the beginning of a sentence, ところで changes the topic of the conversation. When put behind the past tense of a verb, it means "even if". But this usage will not be discussed in details here.
This Kanji has a lot of meaning:
2. a part of the name of Japan (日本)
3. origin (日本 actually means the origin of the sun)
4. counter for long objects
Kana only: いいえ、これはぼくのほんではありません
Romaji: iie, kore wa boku no hon dewa arimasen
Meaning: No, this is not my book.
ではありません (dewa arimasen)
Meaning: is not
More informal forms are ではない and じゃない. It can also be written as じゃありません.
「僕の本」+「ではありません」=not my book
Kana only: としょかんからかりたほんです
Romaji: toshokan kara karita hon desu
Meaning: (It is) a book (that I) borrowed from the library.
In English, "from" is put before a noun, e.g. from China. But in Japanese, から is put after a noun, e.g. 中国から.
「図書館」+「から」=from the library
Meaning: borrowed (the past tense of 借りる)
「図書館から」+「借りた」=(I) borrowed from the library
In Japanese, we don't use words such as "which", "that" and "who" to modify a noun. So sentence structures like "the book that is borrowed from the library", "the place where I was born" or "the man who gave me money" simply do not exist in Japanese. Instead, in Japanese, we use sentence structures like "図書館から借りた本" (borrowed from the library book". In other words, the phrase that modifies the noun is put directly in front of the noun instead of after it.
=the book that I borrowed from the library
Actually, this sentence structure is beyond beginner's level. Let's treat it as an introduction to Japanese verbs. For details of Japanese verbs, you are recommended to read Lesson 4 and Lesson 5.
Kana only: だれかがこのほんにえんぴつでらくがきをしました
Romaji: dareka ga kono hon ni enpitsu de rakugaki o shimashita
Meaning: Someone scribbled on this book with a pencil.
By the way, 誰（だれ） means "who".
Meaning: a particle to indicate what tools you use to finish a task
It functions like "by" and "with" as in "I go to school by bus" and "I cut it with a knife". Again, different from English, で is put after a noun instead of before.
「鉛筆」+「で」= with a pencil
Meaning: graffiti, scribble
Meaning: a particle put between a verb and the object of the verb
For example, in 水を飲む, 飲む（のむ） is a verb, meaning "drink", and 水（みず） is a noun, meaning "water". When を is put between them, it indicates that "water" is the object of the verb "drink". This particle simply does not exist in English. And as you can see, Japanese verbs are located after their objects, while English verbs are before theirs.
Meaning: did (the past tense of します）
The dictionary form of this verb is する. It can be put after certain nouns to turn them into verbs, e.g. 満足=satisfaction, 満足する=be satisfied. Most of the time, it is put after "noun + を" to form a verb phrase, e.g. 買い物をする／買い物をします.
For 落書き, both 落書きします and 落書きをします are correct.
Kana only: にいさん、すみません。わたしがやりました
Romaji: niisan, sumimasen. watashi ga yarimashita
Meaning: My (elder) brother, (I'm) sorry. I did that.
Meaning: the honorific form of "elder brother"
It is used when you are talking to your elder brother(s) or when you are referring to your listener's elder brother. When you are talking with other people outside your family, you should never call your elder brother 兄さん.
It can also be used when you approach a stranger and ask questions. And sometimes it can be used to mean "thank you".
Meaning: did (the past tense of やります)
The dictionary form is やる. Comparing with する／します, it is more informal.
Kana only: いま、けしゴムでらくがきをけします
Romaji: ima, keshigomu de rakugaki o keshimasu
Meaning: Now, I'll clean the scribble with an eraser.
ゴム is from the English word "gum", so it is written in Katakana.
Meaning: erase, extinguish ( a fire)
The dictionary form is 消す.
As you can see, the 消し in 消しゴム is derived from this verb. 消し is called the 連用形 (renyoukei) of the verb 消す. For details, please refer to Lesson 4.
Kana only: いたずらはいいかげんにしろ
Romaji: itazura wa iikagen ni shiro
Meaning: Stop playing pranks on me.
By the way, when written as いたずらに, it means "in vain".
|★||いい加減にしろ(いいかげんにしろ)(iikagen ni shiro)
Meaning: Stop it / Give me a rest / Cut it out
It is used to express objection. しろ is the imperative form of する and should be used carefully.