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Explanation:

1 Kanji+Kana:それはあなたの鉛筆ですか
Kana only: それはあなたのえんぴつですか
Romaji: sore wa anata no enpitsu desu ka
Meaning: Is that your pencil?
 

それ (sore)
Meaning: that
In Japanese, there are two "that". One is それ. The other is あれ.
When referring to things that we can see at the moment, e.g. the mountain far away or the book we are holding in our hands, それ is used for things that are far away from us but close to our listeners; あれ, on the other hand, is used for things that are far away from us as well as our listeners.
When referring to things that we cannot see at the moment, e.g. a film watched last week or a client met yesterday, それ is used for things that your listeners know but you don't know, e.g. a film that your listeners have watched but you have not; あれ is used for things that both you and your listeners know, e.g. a film that you and your listeners watched together.

「それは」='something close to the listener' is the topic

 
あなた (anata)
Meaning: you
Warning:
あなた cannot be used when you are talking with your boss, teachers or parents. For details, please refer to this article.
In very formal letters, it can be written as 貴方 or 貴女(female only).
 
鉛筆(えんぴつ) (enpitsu)
Meaning: pencil
For your information, 鉛(なまり) means "lead" and 筆(ふで) means "writing brush". When combined together, both their pronunciations and meaning change, which is a very good example that you need to learn Kanji phrases, not just individual Kanji.
「あなたの」+「鉛筆」=your pencil
 
(ka)
Meaning: a particle to show that the sentence is a question
The question mark "?" is also used in Japanese but not a must. This particle can change a narrative sentence into a question.
「あなたの鉛筆です」=(It) is your pencil.
「あなたの鉛筆ですか」=Is it your pencil?
2 Kanji+Kana:はい、これは私の鉛筆です。
Kana only: はい、これはわたしのえんぴつです
Romaji: hai, kore wa watashi no enpitsu desu
Meaning: Yes, this is my pencil.
  はい (hai)
Meaning: yes
Be careful that the Japanese people always say "はい" during a conversation to show that they are listening to you. It does not necessarily mean that they agree with you. For details, please read this article.
 
これ (kore)
Meaning: this
3 Kanji+Kana:ところでそれはあなたの本ですか
Kana only: ところでそれはあなたのほんですか
Romaji: tokorode sore wa anata no hon desuka
Meaning: By the way, is that your book?
  ところで (tokorode)
Meaning: by the way
When put in the beginning of a sentence, ところで changes the topic of the conversation. When put behind the past tense of a verb, it means "even if". But this usage will not be discussed in details here.
  (ほん) (hon)
Meaning: book
This Kanji has a lot of meaning:
1. book
2. a part of the name of Japan (日本)
3. origin (日本 actually means the origin of the sun)
4. counter for long objects
4 Kanji+Kana:いいえ、これは僕の本ではありません。
Kana only: いいえ、これはぼくのほんではありません
Romaji: iie, kore wa boku no hon dewa arimasen
Meaning: No, this is not my book.
 

いいえ (iie)
Meaning: no
いいえ in Japanese is a little bit different from "no" in English.
In English, when we ask negative questions such as "Are you not Japanese?", the listener must say either "Yes, I am" or "No, I'm not". "Yes, I'm not" and "No, I am" are grammatically incorrect.
But in Japanese, the opposite is true. If somebody asks you "あなたは日本人ではないんですか”, you should say "はい" instead of "いいえ" to show that you are not Japanese. "はい" in this case confirm that the negative statement in the question is true, while "yes" in English agrees with the statement behind it (e.g. I am), ignoring the negative statement altogether. In other words, in English, whether you ask "Are you not Japanese?" or "Are you Japanese?", despite the slight difference in meaning, the answer will always be "Yes, I am" if you are a Japanese, or "No, I'm not" if you aren't. Missing the "not" in the negative question will not affect the conversation. In Japanese, however, the way a question is asked will change the way the answer is given.
On the other hand, if the question is not negative, yes and no in Japanese and English work the same way.
To speak polite Japanese, people normally do not use "いいえ" to reject offers or invitations. Instead, Japanese people use vague expressions such as "考えておきます" (I will think about it) to imply rejection.

 
ではありません (dewa arimasen)
Meaning: is not
More informal forms are ではない and じゃない. It can also be written as じゃありません.
「僕の本」+「ではありません」=not my book
5 Kanji+Kana:図書館から借りた本です。
Kana only: としょかんからかりたほんです
Romaji: toshokan kara karita hon desu
Meaning: (It is) a book (that I) borrowed from the library.
  図書館(としょかん) (toshokan)
Meaning: library
図書館
 
から (kara)
Meaning: from
In English, "from" is put before a noun, e.g. from China. But in Japanese, から is put after a noun, e.g. 中国から.
「図書館」+「から」=from the library
  借りた (karita)
Meaning: borrowed (the past tense of 借りる)
「図書館から」+「借りた」=(I) borrowed from the library
In Japanese, we don't use words such as "which", "that" and "who" to modify a noun. So sentence structures like "the book that is borrowed from the library", "the place where I was born" or "the man who gave me money" simply do not exist in Japanese. Instead, in Japanese, we use sentence structures like "図書館から借りた本" (borrowed from the library book". In other words, the phrase that modifies the noun is put directly in front of the noun instead of after it.
「図書館から借りた」+「本」
=the book that I borrowed from the library

Actually, this sentence structure is beyond beginner's level. Let's treat it as an introduction to Japanese verbs. For details of Japanese verbs, you are recommended to read Lesson 4 and Lesson 5.
6 Kanji+Kana:誰かがこの本に鉛筆で落書きをしました。
Kana only: だれかがこのほんにえんぴつでらくがきをしました
Romaji: dareka ga kono hon ni enpitsu de rakugaki o shimashita
Meaning: Someone scribbled on this book with a pencil.
  誰か(だれか) (dareka)
Meaning: someone
By the way, 誰(だれ) means "who".
  (de)
Meaning: a particle to indicate what tools you use to finish a task
It functions like "by" and "with" as in "I go to school by bus" and "I cut it with a knife". Again, different from English, で is put after a noun instead of before.
「鉛筆」+「で」= with a pencil
  落書き (rakugaki)
Meaning: graffiti, scribble
  (o)
Meaning: a particle put between a verb and the object of the verb
For example, in 水を飲む, 飲む(のむ) is a verb, meaning "drink", and 水(みず) is a noun, meaning "water". When を is put between them, it indicates that "water" is the object of the verb "drink". This particle simply does not exist in English. And as you can see, Japanese verbs are located after their objects, while English verbs are before theirs.
  しました (shimashita)
Meaning: did (the past tense of します)
The dictionary form of this verb is する. It can be put after certain nouns to turn them into verbs, e.g. 満足=satisfaction, 満足する=be satisfied. Most of the time, it is put after "noun + を" to form a verb phrase, e.g. 買い物をする/買い物をします.
「落書き」+「を」+「しました」=did graffiti=scribbled
For 落書き, both 落書きします and 落書きをします are correct.
7 Kanji+Kana:兄さん、すみません。私がやりました。
Kana only: にいさん、すみません。わたしがやりました
Romaji: niisan, sumimasen. watashi ga yarimashita
Meaning: My (elder) brother, (I'm) sorry. I did that.
  兄さん(にいさん) (niisan)
Meaning: the honorific form of "elder brother"
It is used when you are talking to your elder brother(s) or when you are referring to your listener's elder brother. When you are talking with other people outside your family, you should never call your elder brother 兄さん.
  すみません (sumimasen)
Meaning: sorry
It can also be used when you approach a stranger and ask questions. And sometimes it can be used to mean "thank you".
  やりました (yarimashita)
Meaning: did (the past tense of やります)
The dictionary form is やる. Comparing with する/します, it is more informal.
8 Kanji+Kana:今、消しゴムで落書きを消します。
Kana only: いま、けしゴムでらくがきをけします
Romaji: ima, keshigomu de rakugaki o keshimasu
Meaning: Now, I'll clean the scribble with an eraser.
  今(いま)(ima)
Meaning: now
 
消しゴム(けしゴム) (keshigomu)
Meaning: eraser
ゴム is from the English word "gum", so it is written in Katakana.
  消します(けします) (keshimasu)
Meaning: erase, extinguish ( a fire)
The dictionary form is 消す.
As you can see, the 消し in 消しゴム is derived from this verb. 消し
is called the 連用形 (renyoukei) of the verb 消す. For details, please refer to Lesson 4.
9 Kanji+Kana:いたずらはいい加減にしろ。
Kana only: いたずらはいいかげんにしろ
Romaji: itazura wa iikagen ni shiro
Meaning: Stop playing pranks on me.
  いたずら(itazura)
Meaning: prank
By the way, when written as いたずらに, it means "in vain".
  いい加減にしろ(いいかげんにしろ)(iikagen ni shiro)
Meaning: Stop it / Give me a rest / Cut it out
It is used to express objection. しろ is the imperative form of する and should be used carefully.